This Day in July

War Memorial

Scottish National War Memorial, Edinburgh Castle.
Opened July 14, 1927

Here is a snapshot of Scottish historical events which took place in the month of July, with links to pages with further information, where available on the Web.

July 1 1505
Seal granted by Edinburgh Town Council to the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons to practise their craft. The organisation is now known as the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

July 1 1543
Treaty of Greenwich, between Henry VIII and Earl of Arran, Regent of Scotland, agreeing betrothal of Mary Queen of Scots (aged 6 months) and Edward Prince of Wales (aged 6 years). The treaty was repudiated by the Scots Parliament.

July 1 1782
Proscription Act Repealed, thus allowing again the wearing of tartan and the carrying of weapons (banned as a result of the 1745 Uprising in support of Bonnie Prince Charlie).

July 1 1815
Union Bank of Scotland opened.

July 1 1836
North of Scotland Bank founded in Aberdeen. It is now part of the Clydesdale Bank.

July 1 1940
Birth of Craig Brown, former manager of the Scotland football (soccer) team.

July 1 1937
The 999 emergency telephone service came into operation for police, fire, ambulance and coastguards.

July 1 1999
The Queen officially opened the new Scottish Parliament in its temporary home in the Assembly Hall on The Mound, Edinburgh.

July 2 1266
Treaty of Perth, Norway renounces claim on the Hebrides.

July 2 1644
Scots forces under David Leslie helped in the victory of the Parliamentary forces over the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor.

July 2 1645
Battle of Alford, Marquis of Montrose defeated Lieutenant-General Baillie; Lord Gordon killed.

July 2 1903
Birth of Lord Home of the Hirsel, Foreign Secretary and UK Prime Minister.

July 2 1908
Dumfries reached a temperature of 32.8C (91F), the highest recorded - so far.

July 2 1971
Erskine Bridge over the River Clyde opened.

July 3 1582
James Crichton of Eliock, the original "Admirable Crichton", died in a brawl in Mantua. Soldier, scholar, poet and athlete, he was a graduate of St Andrews University and a tutor of King James VI.

July 3 1728
Architect Robert Adam born in Kirkcaldy.

July 3 1883
124 people drowned when Steamer "Daphne" sank during its launch on river Clyde.

July 3 1928
John Logie Baird transmitted first colour television.

July 3 1954
Food rationing officially ended.

July 4 1892
Lanarkshire-born James Keir Hardie became the first socialist to win a seat in the UK Parliament.

July 5 1530
Border reiver John Armstrong and 50 of his men were hanged for blackmail at Carlanrig by King James V.

July 5 1746
British Linen Company(later Bank) received its Charter.

July 5 1847
Final run of the Edinburgh to London mail coach (trains had taken over).

July 5 1940
A convoy of gold bullion worth 1,800 million pounds sails from the River Clyde.

July 6 1560
Treaty of Edinburgh between Scotland and England.

July 6 1747
John Paul Jones, hero of the US Navy, born Kirkbean, Dumfries.

July 6 1875
Institute of Bankers in Scotland formed, the first professional association of bankers in the world.

July 6 1919
Airship R34, constructed by Glasgow's Beardmore Engineering Co., landed Long Island, USA after the first Trans-Atlantic airship flight - from East Fortune, East Lothian. It took 108 hours.

July 6 1988
Explosion aboard North Sea oil rig Piper Alpha, 167 lives lost.

July 7 1307
Death of King Edward I of England.

July 7 1548
Treaty of Haddington, between France and Scotland, confirming the betrothal of Mary Queen of Scots and Dauphin of France.

July 7 1559
John Knox became the first Protestant minister appointed in Edinburgh.

July 7 1575
The skirmish called "The Raid of the Redeswire", took place between Scottish and English borderers.

July 7 1814
First publication of Walter Scott's Waverley Novels (See Project Gutenberg under "Scott").

July 7 1925
Kelvin Hall exhibition building, Glasgow, destroyed by fire.

July 7 1930
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle author of the Sherlock Holmes detective stories, died.

July 7 1976
David Steel (now Lord Steel of Aikwood) became leader of the Liberal Party.

July 8 1249
King Alexander II died on Isle of Kerrara, Oban Bay.

July 8 1296
King John Balliol abdicated at Montrose.

July 8 1790
Forth and Clyde Canal between the rivers Forth and Clyde, 22 years in the making, opened.

July 8 1822
Sir Henry Raeburn, portrait painter, died.

July 8 1930
First run of the Bennie Railplane at Milngavie near Glasgow on a test track. Despite initial enthusiasm for the concept, it was never developed.

July 9 1867
Queen's Park Football Club, first senior football (soccer) club in Scotland formed.

July 9 1857
Madeleine Smith acquitted of murder and "not proven" on another charge of attempted poisoning after a notorious trial.

July 9 1938
Gas masks issued to the civilian population in anticipation of the Second World War.

July 9 1947
Glasgow Zoological Society opened a zoo at Calderpark. Glasgow Zoo eventually closed in 2003.

July 10 1451
King James III born at Stirling.

July 10 1559
King Henri of France died. Mary Queen of Scots' husband, Francis, becomes King of France.

July 10 1576
First Bible (New Testament) printed in Scotland by Bassandyne.

July 10 1633
Sailing ship "Blessing of Burntisland" carrying gold, jewellery and silver plate belonging to King Charles I, sank in the Firth of Forth.

July 11 1274
Robert the Bruce born at Turnberry Castle.

July 11 1924
Eric Liddell (later famous as a result of the film "Chariots of Fire") won Olympic 400 metres sprint in Paris.

July 12 1570
Earl of Lennox appointed Regent of Scotland.

July 12 1690
William III defeated James VII in the Battle of the Boyne, Ireland.

July 12 1698
Darien expedition left Leith for Panama.

July 12 1928
Broadcaster Sir Alastair Burnet born.

July 13 1174
King William surprised and captured by the English at Alnwick.

July 13 1249
King Alexander III crowned at Scone

July 13 1469
King James III married Margaret of Denmark.

July 13 1834
Botanist and explorer David Douglas died in Hawaii.

July 13 1868
Scottish Reform Act passed.

July 14 1798
United States' Consulate first opened in Edinburgh.

July 14 1927
Scottish National War Memorial opened (see graphic at the top of this page).

July 15 1889
National Portrait Gallery for Scotland opened in Edinburgh.

July 15 1914
Gavin Maxwell, author of "Ring of Brightwater" born.

July 16 1309
James Stewart, High Steward of Scotland, died.

July 16 1328
David II, son of Robert I (the Bruce) married Joan, sister of Edward III (he was 4, she was 7).

July 16 1832
31 Shetland boats (known as "sixerns") sank in a storm with the loss of 105 crewmen. The event is still recalled as "The Bad Day".

July 16 1970
13th Commonwealth Games opened in Edinburgh.

July 17 1652
Great Fire of Glasgow, destroying nearly one third of the city.

July 17 1695
Bank of Scotland, first bank to be established by an Act of the Scottish Parliament, opened.

July 17 1790
Adam Smith, author of "Wealth of Nations" died.

July 17 1895
The east coast express train from London to Aberdeen set a record time of 10 hours and 21 minutes for the 540 miles.

July 18 1290
Treaty of Birgham whereby Edward I guaranteed survival of Scotland "separate, apart and free without subjection to the English nation".

July 18 1792
John Paul Jones, naval hero of the American Revolution, died; he was born in Kircudbrightshire in 1747.

July 18 1872
Voting by secret ballot was introduced for the first time.

July 18 1999
Paul Lawrie won the Open Golf Championship at Carnoustie after a three-way play-off against Jean van de Veldt of France and Justin Leonard of the US.

July 19 1333
Battle of Halidon Hill in which Sir Archibald Douglas (guardian of David II) routed by Edward Balliol and Edward III. Scots losses were nearly 600, English losses 14.

July 19 1896
Novelist A J Cronin born at Cardross, Dunbartonshire.

July 19 1992
John Smith became leader of the Labour Party.

July 20 1332
Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray and Regent of Scotland, died at Musselburgh. Donald, Earl of Mar, appointed Regent in his place.

July 20 1651
Battle of Inverkeithing. Royalist force supporting Charles II failed to halt advance of army of Oliver Cromwell heading for Perth.

July 20 1705
Act of the Scottish Parliament establishing herring fishing in and around Scotland.

July 20 1889
Lord Reith, governor of BBC, born in Stonehaven.

July 21 1796
Robert Burns dies in Dumfries, aged 37.

July 21 1918
Writer, broadcaster and Burns Scholar Maurice Lindsay born.

July 21 1985
Sandy Lyle won Open Golf Championship.

July 22 1298
The army of the English King Edward I, using longbows for the first time, defeated the Scots led by Sir William Wallace at Battle of Falkirk.

July 22 1793
Alexander Mackenzie completed the first overland crossing of North America.

July 22 1913
Edinburgh Zoo opened for the first time.

July 23 1637
Presbyterian riot in St Giles during which Jenny Geddes shouted "Don't thou say Mass in ma lug" and threw her chair at the pulpit.

July 23 1745
Charles Edward Stuart landed on Eriskay at the start of the 1745 campaign.

July 23 1886
Birth in Glasgow of Arthur Whitten Brown (later Sir Arthur), companion of Alcock on the first west to east aircraft crossing of the Atlantic.

July 24 1411
Battle of Harlaw Hill, one of the bloodiest battles on Scottish soil. Donald, Lord of the Isles and a force of Highlanders met an army from the north-east led by the Earl of Mar. After a long battle, both sides thought they had lost - and the descendants of both sides thought they had won.

July 24 1567
Mary Queen of Scots abdicated and the young James VI acceded to Scottish throne. The Earl of Mar was appointed regent.

July 23 1916
Death of Sir William Ramsay, Scottish chemist who discovered helium, xenon, neon, argon, radon and krypton.

July 24 1976
David Wilkie won Olympic 200 metres breaststroke.

July 24 2002
The Princess Royal formally opened the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park, Scotland's first national park.

July 25 1394
King James I born.

July 25 1843
Charles Mackintosh, inventor of rubberized raincoats, died.

July 25 1848
Arthur James Balfour, the only Secretary of State for Scotland to become Prime Minister, born E Lothian.

July 25 1930
Singer Annie Ross born.

July 25 1948
Bread rationing ends in Britain.

July 25 1980
Alan Wells won Olympic 100 metres sprint.

July 27 1689
Battle of Killiecrankie in which Graham of Claverhouse (Bonnie Dundee) leading an army of Highlanders in support of the Jacobite cause, defeated King William's army under General Hugh Mackay.

July 27 1760
The Scottish School of Design was founded in Edinburgh. It later became the Royal Institution and finally the Royal Scottish Academy.

July 28 1913
Jo Grimond, former leader of the Liberal party, born.

July 29 1565
Mary, Queen of Scots, married Lord Darnley.

July 29 1567
King James VI (aged 13 months) crowned at the Church of the Holy Rude, beside Stirling Castle, following the abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots, five days earlier.

July 29 1971
A work-in began at John Brown's Clydebank shipyard led by activist Jimmy Reid. It led to the formation of Govan Shipbuilders which was later taken over by Marathon Manufacturing.

July 30 1918
Provisions were included in the Scottish Education Bill to ensure adequate facilities for teaching Gaelic in Scotland.

July 30 1938
First edition of the long-running "Beano" comic was published.

July 31 1786
"Kilmarnock Edition" of the poems of Robert Burns "Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect" first published.

July 31 1845
Caledonian Railway Company authorised to commence business.

July 31 1965
Cigarette advertising banned on television in Britain.

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