Scottish Place Names
- Invercargill, New Zealand
For comparability with other cities and towns around the world, Invercargill has been defined as the urban and semi-urban area extending from Wallacetown, Makarewa and Roslyn Bush in the north to Bluff in the south and from Oreti Beach in the west to Kennington, Seaward Bush and Waimatua in the east. Of the names of the 53 suburbs and semi-rural localities in the Invercargill area that have been identified to date, 21 (39.6%) can be found, in whole or in part, in Scotland or are based on Scottish family names. Of course, some of the names are used in other parts of the British Isles as well, but at least 12 of them (22.6%), including the name Invercargill itself, appear to have a definite Scottish association.
The graphic on the right of spring in Esk Street, Invercargill is via Wikimedia. All the illustrations below relate to places and connections in Scotland.
Official suburbs and other localities with names that occur only in Scotland and not elsewhere in the British Isles, and/or are definitely or most probably of Scottish origin are:
- Anderson Park - Anderson is a relatively common Lowland surname meaning 'son of Andrew'; it is also the anglicised form of the surname of MacAndrews, which in turn is derived from the Gaelic Mac Ghille Andreis - 'son of the servant of Saint Andrew' (Scarlett, 1975). The suburb takes its name from the nearby park in which Sir Robert Anderson (died 1942), a notable Invercargill businessman, built a Georgian-style residence in the 1920s. The residence and surrounding landscaped gardens were bequeathed to the City of Invercargill in 1951; the residence now houses an extensive collection of New Zealand art (article on Anderson Park, Invercargill, retrieved from Wikipedia in July 2013). In the Anderson Park Art Gallery website it is stated that "Sir Robert Anderson was born in Queenstown on 26th September 1866, the son of Robert Anderson of Glasgow, Scotland who arrived in NZ in 1862. His mother died when he was young and at the age of 12 he came to Invercargill to be employed as one of the first office boys of the Southland Building Society." (see Anderson Park Gallery - The Family)
- Appleby - there is a village in Dumfries & Galloway called Appleby. Of Danish origin, the name occurs more widely in those parts of England that formed part of the Dane Law (there are places called Appleby in Cumberland, Westmorland, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Northamptonshire). The Invercargill suburb has a definite link with Scotland, however. Wendy McArthur, an authority on Invercargill place names, provides the following explanation: "Peter Dalrymple owned a property south of Dalrymple St which he named Appleby after the farm in Scotland which his sister Janet (Jane) McQueen and her husband Alexander and their family lived on. Appleby farm is in the parish of Glasserton, Wigtownshire, Scotland. The name of Appleby for this township in Invercargill was in use by the early 1860s." (McArthur, 2006, p. 12).
- Gladstone - there are places called Gladstone and Gladstone Boreland in South Lanarkshire, and Gladstone Farm in Renfrewshire. Gladstone is a Scottish family name, well established in Lanarkshire by the 13th century (Herbert de Gledstan was one of the signatories of the Ragman Roll). The most famous bearer of this name was William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898), one of Queen Victoria's Prime Ministers. The Invercargill suburb was indeed named for the British Prime Minister, the name having first being used by William Henderson Calder as the name of his estate by the Waihopai River (McArthur, 2006). Although William Gladstone was born in Liverpool, his parents were both Scottish; he is on record as having proudly claimed that "not a drop of blood in my veins is not Scottish." The graphic here shows a statue to Gladstone in Edinburgh.
- Glengarry - There are two valleys in the Scottish Highlands called Glen Garry: (1) the valley in Perthshire, situated to the east of Loch Ericht, through which flows the River Garry, a tributary of the River Tummel and (2) the valley located in the south of the former county of Inverness, some 10 miles (16 km) south-west of the southern end of Loch Ness. A glengarry is also a type of brimless cap, often with two short ribbons hanging from the back, the wearing of which was popularised by the Highland chief Macdonnell of Glengarry during King George IV's visit to Edinburgh in 1822 (Collins Gem Scots Dictionary, 2000, p. 98). Clan Macdonnell of Glengarry held land in the second (Inverness-shire) valley mentioned above. The reason for naming the Invercargill suburb has not been recorded.
- Invercargill and West Invercargill - The City of Invercargill was named for Edinburgh-born William Walter Cargill (1784-1860), founder and Superintendent of Otago Province. The name was given in 1856 by Thomas Gore Browne, Governor of New Zealand. The 'inver' part of the name is somewhat of a misnomer. Not being a Scotsman himself, Governor Browne failed to appreciate that in Scotland the term 'inver' (from the Gaelic inbhir, meaning a river mouth) is always followed by the name of a river, not the name of a person. (McArthur, 2006, p. 11)
- Lorneville - Lorne (also spelled Lorn) is the name of an ancient district in Argyll & Bute, whence the 'Firth of Lorne', the name of the large estuary at Oban into which Lochs Linnhe and Etive flow. Lorneville, on the northern outskirts of Invercargill, was formerly known as Wallacetown Junction (see Wallacetown below).
- Roslyn Bush - Roslyn is a variant spelling of Roslin, a village south of Edinburgh in Midlothian, and home to Rosslyn Chapel, the elaborately carved chapel which features in the Da Vinci Code best-seller. Its etymology is obscure, some sources stating that the name comes from the Gaelic (Q-Celtic) for 'headland of the waterfall' while others prefer a Brythonic (P-Celtic) origin meaning 'moor of the holly' from words cognate with Modern Welsh 'rhos' and 'celyn'. Roslin and its variants Roslyn and Rosslyn became popular names for towns, neighbourhoods and streets throughout the English-speaking world, possibly because of their mention in two of Sir Walter Scott's works: the Lay of the Last Minstrel and Rokeby. As pointed out by Ayto and Crofton (2005), during the 18th and 19th centuries Roslin Castle, Roslin Chapel and Roslin Glen "proved a magnet for those in search of the picturesque" (p. 934) and were visited by notable Scottish and English artists, poets and authors including Alexander Nasmyth, Samuel Johnson, James Boswell, Robert Burns, Sir Walter Scott and William Wordsworth.
- Strathern - Strathern is presumably a reference to Strathearn, the Perthshire valley through which the River Earn flows. The reason for naming the Invercargill suburb has not been recorded but its original spelling was Strathearn (McArthur, 2006). The graphic shows the village of Comrie in Strathearn.
- Turnbull Thomson Park - Both Turnbull and Thomson are Scottish family names. Turnbull is a name from the Scottish Borders, and is associated with the Roxburgh area in particular. Black (1996), the authority on Scottish family names, suggests that Turnbull came from Old English 'Trumbald' meaning 'strongly bold'. Thomson is a Scottish spelling of Thompson, the Thomson family being a sept of Campbell of Argyll (Scarlett, 1975). The small suburb of Turnbull Thomson Park takes its name from the park, which in turn had been named in honour of John Turnbull Thomson, Surveyor-General of New Zealand from 1876 until 1879. Although Thomson was an Englishman by birth, his ancestry on both sides of the family was Scottish (Berwickshire). Thomson was born at Glorum, Northumberland, the third child of Alexander Thomson and his wife, Janet, née Turnbull. "He was educated at Wooler and Duns Academy, later spending some time attached to Marischal College, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh University before studying engineering at Peter Nicholson's School of Engineering at Newcastle-on-Tyne....Early in 1856 he immigrated to New Zealand...." (Wikipedia article on John Turnbull Thomson, retrieved in July 2013). Thomson established a township in Invercargill called Coldstream in which the streets recalled villages and rivers near this Scottish border town: Lees, Ramrig and Swinton streets; also Simprim St (now Park street), Oxenrig St (now part of Lewis street) and Hirsel St (now part of Herbert street) (McArthur, 2006, pp. 15-16). The former township of Coldstream today forms part of the suburb of Gladstone. Thomson was responsible for bestowing many of the Scottish street names in the city centre as well as several recalling his native Northumberland.
- Wallacetown - There are many places in Scotland that feature Wallace in their name. Examples include Wallacetown in Dumfries & Galloway, Wallacestone in Falkirk, Wallacetown in Ayrshire and Cambuswallace in Lanarkshire. One of Scotland's most famous Wallaces is Sir William Wallace, the 13th century patriot who championed Scotland's independence when this was under threat by King Edward I of England's expansionist policy. Wallace means 'Welshman', a Saxon term for 'foreigner' that was applied by the Saxons to the descendants of the Celtic-speaking Ancient Britons in Wales, Cornwall, Cumbria and Strathclyde. New Zealand's Wallacetown, located to the immediate northwest of Invercargill, is one of the earliest settlements in Southland. Today it serves as a satellite town. All the streets in Wallacetown have Scottish names, the vast majority of which are named for places in Ayrshire (Ailsa, Alloway, Ballantrae, Clyde, Cumnock, Dalry, Dalwharn, Dunlop, Girvan, Irvine, Kilmarnock, Kirkoswald, Largs and Mauchline). This fact strongly suggests that the New Zealand town was named either for the village of Wallacetown in South Ayrshire, or for a pioneer who came from Ayrshire.
- Waverley - Waverley is the name of the main railway station in Edinburgh. The station received its name in the 1850s, from the title of a series of novels by Sir Walter Scott (a monument to whom had been erected near the future railway station in 1844). Sir Walter, in turn, had borrowed the name from Waverley Abbey, a ruined Cistercian monastery in Surrey, England. The Waverley novels, written in the early 19th century, were an immediate success throughout the English-speaking world, resulting in numerous towns, neighbourhoods, roads and private residences called Waverley (Waverly in America). The illustration shows the Waverley Station in Edinburgh and the adjacent Balmoral Hotel.
Some of the following suburbs and localities could prove on further investigation to have a link with Scotland. Most of these names, however, tend to be used in other parts of the British Isles.
- Greenhills (North Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire) but places called Greenhills are found more commonly in England and there is also a suburb of Dublin with this descriptive name.
- Greenpoint - There is a promontory in the Shetland Islands called Green Point. Although this name occurs only in Scotland, and not elsewhere in the British Isles, Invercargill's Greenpoint is unlikely to be of Scottish origin and more likely to be a purely descriptive name.
- Rosedale - This name is commonly found in England rather than Scotland, e.g. Rosedale Abbey in Yorkshire. There is a suggestion, however, that the Invercargill suburb may have been named for a place, possibly a property or residence, in Scotland. McArthur's (2006) entry on Rosedale is as follows: "In the 1870s William Cruickshank bought from Dr William Grigor, 460 acres of bush land he called Rosedale.....The origin of the name Rosedale is not recorded but is possibly a name from Aberdeenshire, Scotland from where William Cruickshank came to Bluff in 1863 on the immigrant ship New Great Britain with his wife Jane and other family members." (McArthur, 2006, p. 32)
- Underwood (Dumfries & Galloway and South Ayrshire) but found more frequently in England and also used as a place name in parts of Wales. As a family name Underwood is typically English.
- Woodend (Aberdeenshire, Argyll & Bute, Scottish Borders, Dumfries & Galloway, East Lothian, Falkirk, Fife, Highland, Moray, North Lanarkshire, Perth & Kinross, South Lanarkshire and Stirling) but also common throughout England, sometimes spelt Wood End.
A final category of suburban names comprises places that can be found in Scotland but which, in the case of Invercargill, definitely or most probably have no Scottish connection.
- Clifton - there are villages called Clifton in the Scottish Borders, Orkney Islands and Stirling but the name is used in many English counties as well, most famously the spa town of Clifton (now a suburb of Bristol) on the River Avon. It is very likely that the Invercargill suburb was named for Clifton on the River Avon. As noted by McArthur (2006), the first streets to be laid out in Clifton were all named after English rivers: the Avon, Humber and Severn.
- Georgetown (Dumfries & Galloway, Moray and Renfrewshire) also the name of a town in Blaenau Gwent, Wales. The origin of the name of this suburb is not known but at least one highly plausible suggestion has been put forward. "Why the name of Georgetown was chosen is not recorded but one suggestion given is that George III was the sovereign of Britain during the Battles of Trafalgar and Waterloo and Georgetown was the township next to what was called Trafalgar Township." (McArthur, 2006, p. 19). The portrait here (via Wikimedia) is of King George III as Prince of Wales.
- Newfield - being a descriptive name, places called Newfield can be found in at least eight different parts of Scotland: Aberdeenshire, Dumfries & Galloway, East Ayrshire, the Highlands, Moray, the Orkney Islands, South Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire, but the name is used just as frequently in England. The Invercargill suburb was in fact named for Newfield House in Lancashire, England (McArthur, 2006, p. 29).
- Prestonville - there are several places in Scotland called Preston and many more in England, from the Old English Preosta-tun, 'priests' farm'. As a family name, however, Preston is more typically English than Scottish. The suburb of Prestonville has an English connection since it was named for Robert Preston, from Yorkshire, who farmed in the area in the 1880s (McArthur, 2006, p. 76).
It is worth noting that the suburb of Kew was named by a Scotsman. Sir David Monro (1813-77), a medical doctor from Edinburgh, bought a block of land when Invercargill was founded, and named the road later running through the centre Kew Road, after the Royal Botanic Gardens in Surrey, England. Sir David Monro was also a plant collector and sent plants from New Zealand to Sir William Hooker, the first official director of Kew Gardens (McArthur, 2006, p. 25). There could also be an indirect connection with Scotland in the case of the suburb of Grasmere. McArthur (2006, p. 21) provides two possible explanations for the origin of the name: the picturesque village in Westmorland, England at the head of Lake Grasmere, the beauty of the area inspiring much of William Wordsworth's poetry and /or the ill-fated immigrant passenger ship, Grasmere, which left Greenock Scotland on December 14th 1863 bound for Southland and which foundered off the Irish coast without loss of life.
The City of Invercargill is small enough to venture an analysis of its street names. What is particularly interesting - and perhaps unique among cities around the world - is the fact that all the streets in central Invercargill are named for Scottish rivers. Moreover, nearly all the streets in the north-western suburb of Wallacetown have Scottish names, mainly connected with Ayrshire, while many streets named after places in Scotland can also be found in other Invercargill suburbs. The list reads like a grand tour of Scotland:
- Ailsa Street (Wallacetown) - Given that most of the streets in Wallacetown have an association with Ayrshire, this is likely to be a reference to Ailsa Crag, the 338 m (1109 ft) high pointed rock guarding the entrance to the Firth of Clyde, some 16 km (10 miles) off the Ayrshire coast.
- Albany Street (Kingswell) - Albany (or Albion) is derived from the ancient Celtic name for Britain, giving rise to 'Alba' as the Modern Gaelic name for Scotland. It is also a title sometimes used by British royalty, e.g. Queen Victoria's youngest son, Prince Leopold, was created the Duke of Albany. The title is a Scottish one and was first conferred in 1398 upon Robert, brother of Robert III (born John) of Scotland.
- Aloway St (Wallacetown) -Aloway doubtless refers to the village of Alloway (now effectively a suburb of Ayr), the birthplace of Scotland's national poet, Robert Burns.
- Annan Street (West Invercargill) - the River Annan rises in the Devil's Beef Tub on the south side of Annanhead Hill, near the sources of the Tweed and Clyde and flows in a southerly direction, entering the Solway Firth at the town of Annan. Its meaning is uncertain and is probably Old Celtic or pre-Celtic in origin (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 27).
- Argyle Street (Kew) - Argyle is an old spelling of Argyll, a former county on the west coast of Scotland. The modern unitary authority of Argyll and Bute includes much of the former county of Argyll. Argyle Street is one of several streets that were given Scottish names by the Invercargill City Council in the 1960s, the choice probably being prompted by Argyle Street in Glasgow (pictured here) which was named in 1751 after the Duke of Argyle (McArthur, 2006, p. 37).
- Ballantrae Street (Wallacetown) - Ballantrae is a small village in South Ayrshire, some 20 km (12 miles) south of Girvan. 'The Master of Ballantrae' is the title of one of Robert Louis Stevenson's novels.
- Balmoral Drive (Appleby) - Balmoral Castle is the royal residence on the River Dee in Aberdeenshire acquired by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1852.
- Benmore Street (Prestonville) - Benmore is a village in Argyll, some 8 km (5 miles) northwest of Dunoon. A descriptive name - from Gaelic words meaning 'big mountain' - it is far from surprising that several Scottish mountains are called Ben More, including Scotland's (and Britain's) 15th highest mountain that is often referred to as "the Perthshire Ben More" although now located in Stirling, and Ben More, the highest mountain on Mull. It is also possible that Prestonville's Benmore Street could have taken its name from a prominent headland on the north coast of County Antrim, in Northern Ireland called Benmore, also known as Fair Head. The entry in McArthur (2006, p. 39) suggests, however, that the Invercargill street derived its name from the Benmore Range in northern Southland.
- Biggar Street (Strathern) - Biggar is a small town and former royal burgh located on the Biggar Burn in South Lanarkshire, 17 km (11 miles) southeast of Lanark.
- Bowmont Street (Appleby/Georgetown) - Bowmont Water is a river which rises in the Cheviot Hills, near Windy Hill on the border with England. The river flows in a northerly direction, passing the villages of Mowhaugh, Town Yetholm and Kirk Yetholm before crossing the border into Northumberland to eventually join the River Glen at Akeld.
- Braemar Street (Kew) - The Aberdeenshire village of Braemar, about five miles west of Balmoral castle, is world famous as the venue for the annual Highland Gathering. Patronised by royalty, this Gathering is always held on the first Saturday in September and features a spectacle of highland dancing, pipe bands and highland sporting competitions (tossing the caber, stone putt etc).
- Bute Street (West Invercargill) - Bute is an island off the coast of Argyll to which it is joined administratively. The graphic here is of Rothesay, the largest town on the Isle of Bute.
- Carron Street (Waverley) - At least four Scottish rivers or streams are called Carron: (1) The River Carron rises in the Campsie Fells to the north of Glasgow and flows in an easterly direction through northern Fife to join the Firth of Forth near Grangemouth; (2) The River Carron in Wester Ross in the Highlands rises in Ledgowan Forest and flows southwest to empty into Loch Carron opposite the Isle of Skye; (3) The River Carron in Sutherland which flows into the Kyle of Sutherland at Bonar Bridge at the head of Dornoch Firth; (4) Carron Water, rising in Fetteresso Forest and discharging into the North Sea at Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire. Carron Street is one of Invercargill's more recent Scottish names. As noted by McArthur (2006, p. 42), the street was named in the 1950s after Governor-General Sir Willoughby Norris's first official visit, during which he commented on the absence of Lady Norrie's favourite Scottish river among the other streets that had been named for Scottish rivers.
- Clyde Street (West Invercargill - a main road) - The River Clyde, on which Scotland's largest city is situated, is arguably the best-known of all the Scottish rivers. Scotland's second longest river, the Clyde rises in the Lowther Hills of South Lanarkshire, near the sources of the Tweed and Annan. Nicolaisen (2001), an authority on Scottish place names, states that its meaning is uncertain but is probably of Old Celtic origin. He notes that the Roman senator and historian Tacitus referred to it as Clota; its Gaelic name is Cluidh, also spelt Clutha. Regarding its Celtic origin, it is perhaps relevant to note that there is a river in north Wales with a similar name, the River Clwyd. The picture on the right shows the river Clyde in Glasgow.
- Clyde Street (Wallacetown) - Since the vast majority of the streets in Wallacetown are named for places in Ayrshire, this is likely to be a reference to the Firth of Clyde rather than the River Clyde itself.
- Collean Street (Wallacetown) - McArthur (2006, p. 116) considers this to be a reference to Culzean on the Ayrshire coast, which is pronounced 'Collean'. It could be relevant to note, in addition, that a line in one of Robert Burns' poems about Halloween reads: "Or for Colean the route is ta'en".
- Conon Street (Invercargill/Appleby) - The River Conon has its source at Loch Luichart and flows in an easterly direction, emptying into Cromarty Firth near Dingwall.
- Cree Street (Glengarry) - The River Cree rises near Garwall Hill in the Galloway Forest Park and flows in a south-easterly direction into Wigtown Bay on the Solway Firth. The river passes through the town of Newton Stewart. McArthur (2006, p. 44) notes that a number of Invercargill's first settlers came from Wigtownshire.
- Crinan Street (Appleby/Georgetown) - The Crinan Canal in Argyllshire was constructed in 1801 to link Loch Gilp and the Sound of Jura. The canal was built in order to shorten the time taken to travel between the Clyde and the Hebrides; prior to its construction commercial sailing vessels needed to round the Mull of Kintyre, 40 miles to the south.
- Cumnock Street (Wallacetown) - Cumnock is a small town in East Ayrshire. Dr Samuel Johnson's biographer, James Boswell, is buried here. The town is also famous as the birthplace of Britain's first Labour MP, Kerr Hardie.
- Dalry Street (Wallacetown) - Dalry is a small town to the north of Kilwinning in North Ayrshire.
- Dalwharn Street (Wallacetown) - Dalwharn is an approximation of the way Dalquharran is pronounced. Dalquharran Castle in South Ayrshire was owned by the Kennedy family from the 17th until the mid-20th century. Dalquharran Castle is also known as Old Place of Dalwharn, among several other variations (See Parks and Gardens UK: Dalquharran Castle).
- Dee Street (Invercargill - a main road) - there are two major rivers in Scotland called the Dee: (1) in southwest Scotland, flowing into the Solway Firth at Kirkcudbright Bay; (2) in northeast Scotland, flowing into the North Sea at Aberdeen. There are also rivers in England, Ireland and Wales call the Dee including, most famously, the river on which Chester is situated. Given the Scottish theme to street names in central Invercargill, however, Dee Street is doubtless a reference to one of the Scottish rivers.
- Deveron St (Invercargill) - The River Deveron is a major river in north-east Scotland. It rises in the Grampians, in the Ladder Hills, and winds its way to the Moray Firth, its estuary being between the towns of Banff and Macduff.
- Don Street (Invercargill) - The River Don in Aberdeenshire - Scotland's sixth-longest river - rises near Brown Cow Hill in the north-east Cairngorms and flows in an easterly direction to reach the North Sea at Bridge of Don, now a northern suburb of Aberdeen. The City of Aberdeen in fact takes its name from the River Don and not the River Dee on which it is also situated, which probably explains why the inhabitants of Aberdeen are called Aberdonians.
- Doon Street (Invercargill) - The River Doon in Ayrshire rises in Loch Doon and enters the sea at Doonfoot, a short distance south of the town of Ayr. The river forms the border between the Ayrshire regions of Carrick and Kyle. At Alloway, Robert Burns' birthplace, there is a single-arched medieval bridge over the river called the Brig o' Doon (pictured here), the probable inspiration for the title of Lerner and Loewe's 1947 musical 'Brigadoon' and the bridge over which Tam o' Shanter and his horse Maggie were able to escape the pursuing witches in Burns' 1791 poem.
- Dumbarton Place (Strathern) - Dumbarton is a town on the north shore of the River Clyde, some 20 km (12 miles) north-west of Glasgow. Dumbarton is an Anglicisation of the Gaelic 'Dùn Breatann' ('fortress of the Britons' - a reference to the descendants of the Ancient Britons who controlled much of Strathclyde, Dumfries and Cumberland until the early 11th century).
- Dunbeath Crescent, Dunbeath Court and Dunbeath Place (Kew) - Dunbeath is a town on the east coast of Caithness, located at the mouth of Dunbeath Water.
- Duncraig Street (Hawthorndale) - Duncraig is the name of a railway station serving Duncraig Castle near Plockton on the west coast of Scotland. The link with Scotland is indirect, however, as the street was named after John "Jock" Purdue's parents-in-law's home in Timaru, a seaport between Christchurch and Dunedin (McArthur, 2006, p. 48).
- Dundee Street and Dundee Place (Strathern) - Dundee (picured on the right), situated on the Firth of Tay, is Scotland's fourth largest city.
- Dunlop Road (Wallacetown) - Dunlop is a village to the north of Stewarton in East Ayrshire.
- Earn Street (Appleby) - The River Earn is a river in Perthshire in the southern Highlands. Rising in Loch Earn, the river flows in an easterly direction passing Comrie, Crieff and Forteviot before joining the River Tay at the head of the Firth of Tay.
- Earnslaw Street (Avenal) - Earnslaw is a small village in the Merse district of the Scottish Borders, a short distance southwest of the village of Swinton. The street was named as a tribute to John Turnbull Thomson's grandfather's farm on Earnslaw Hill in Berwickshire (McArthur, 2006, p. 49).
- Eden Crescent (Waverley) - This is a reference, most probably, to Eden Water, a tributary of the River Tweed. McArthur (2006, p. 49) points out that Eden Water is in the area written about by Sir Walter Scott in his Waverley novels. It is possible, of course, that Eden Crescent could have taken its name from the River Eden, an important river in northwest England which flows through Carlisle in Cumbria.
- Edinburgh Crescent (Waikiwi) - McArthur (2006, p. 49) suggests two possibilities for the naming of this street. One is the Scottish capital city itself where a number of settlers in Southland and Otago received their higher education. The other is HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
- Elgin Street (Grasmere) - Elgin is a town in Moray, north-east Scotland. Its ruined cathedral is known as 'The Lantern of the North'. The Scottish town has no known connection with the person who named the street, but it has been suggested that he was an admirer of the 8th Earl of Elgin, Governor General of Canada from 1847 to 1854 (McArthur, 2006, p. 50).
- Esk Street (Invercargill) - There are several rivers in Scotland with the name River Esk: (1) a river in Lothian formed by the confluence of the North Esk and South Esk at Dalkeith, southeast of Edinburgh, and emptying into the Firth of Forth at Inveresk near Musselburgh; (2) a river in Dumfries-shire formed by the confluence of the Black Esk and the White Esk at Eskdalemuir, before crossing the border into Cumbria to empty into the head of Solway Firth and; (3) two separate rivers in Angus called the North Esk and South Esk which flow into the North Sea at Montrose. In addition, there are two rivers in the north of England called Esk, in the Lake District of Cumbria and in North Yorkshire. Esk is considered to be an Old Celtic name simply meaning 'water' or 'swiftly flowing' (the modern Gaelic word for water is 'uisge').
- Ettrick Street (West Invercargill/Appleby/Georgetown) - Ettrick Water is a river in the Scottish Borders. Its source is near Capel Fell, to the east of the town of Moffat. The river flows in a north-easterly direction through Ettrick Forest and joins the River Tweed a short distance to the north of Selkirk. The meaning of the name is unknown (Room, 2003, p. 165).
- Eye Street (Appleby/West Invercargill) - Eye Water rises near Heart Law at the eastern end of the Lammermuir Hills and flows in a generally easterly direction to its estuary at Eyemouth on the North Sea coast.
- Falkirk Street (Wallacetown) - Falkirk is an industrial town in central Scotland, about 16 kilometres (10 miles) southeast of Stirling. On the surface, this street name does not appear to conform to the Ayrshire theme of Wallacetown street names. There is a connection, however, through the patriot William Wallace, who fought a major battle at Falkirk (MacArthur, 2006, p. 116). The picture shows Callendar House, Falkirk.
- Farrar Street (Heidelberg) - The River Farrar rises in Loch Monar and flows eastward to meet the River Glass, at which point the two rivers become the River Beauly. The river was referred to as the Varar by Ptolemy in AD 150. Nicolaisen (2001) discusses the origin of the name at length and concludes that it is likely to be an ancient name of pre-Celtic origin, the meaning of which has been lost.
- Forfar Crescent (Rockdale) - Forfar is a town and royal burgh in Angus, about 22 km (13 miles) northwest of Arbroath. The seat of the unitary authority of Angus, it was previously the county town of Angus (formerly known as Forfarshire).
- Forth Street (Invercargill) - The River Forth rises on the eastern slopes of Ben Lomond in the Queen Elizabeth Forest Park and flows in an easterly direction to enter the head of the Firth of Forth at Alloa. The town of Stirling is situated on its banks. Known to the Romans as Bodotria, its modern meaning is uncertain, one possibility being the English word 'ford'. In the 12th century the river's Gaelic name was 'Froch', its Welsh name was 'Gwerid' and its Anglo-Saxon name was 'Scottewattre', the latter name being a reference to the northern boundary of the kingdom of Northumbria in Anglo-Saxon times (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 436).
- Gala Street (Avenal/Invercargill/Richmond - a main road) - Gala Water, which flows through the town of Galashiels in the Scottish Borders, is a tributary of the Tweed. Its meaning is unknown (Room, 2003, p. 185).
- Girvan Street (Wallacetown) - Girvan is a town on the South Ayrshire coast, about 28 km (17 miles) southwest of Ayr. It is located at the mouth of the Water of Girvan, a minor river which rises in Loch Bradan and which passes several villages including Wallacetown to the northeast of Girvan.
- Glenalmond Crescent (Rockdale) - Glen Almond is a valley in the Breadalbane district of Perthshire, some 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Crieff. The River Almond flows through Glen Almond before joining the River Tay near Perth. The origin of the name is uncertain. Nicolaisen (2001), an authority on Scottish place names, speculates that it could be related to an ancient Indo-European root meaning 'moist' or 'water'.
- Glenbrae Place (Hargest) - this name uses distinctly Scottish elements: glen (a narrow valley) and brae (a hill or hillside)
- Glengarry Crescent (Glengarry) - see the suburb of Glengarry listed above.
- Glenroy Park Drive (Waikiwi) - Glen Roy is the glen formed by the River Roy in the Highland region of Lochaber, northeast of Fort William. McArthur (2006, p. 54) states, however, that the street was named by the developer after a racehorse. .
- Gretna Street (Heidelberg) - a small town in Dumfries-shire, on the border with England. The nearby village of Gretna Green is world famous for the old blacksmiths' shop (see graphic) where many runaway marriages were performed owing to a 1753 Act of Parliament which applied in England and Wales but not in Scotland concerning parental consent to the marriage of under 21-year-olds.
- Hamilton Road (Awarua) - Hamilton is a large town in South Lanarkshire, to the south-east of Glasgow. Its name is of Old English origin ('broken farmstead') and is derived from the Anglo-Norman Hamilton family who were granted land in the area after the Battle of Bannockburn (Ayto & Crofton, 2005; Room, 2003).
- Helmsdale Street (Waverley) - Helmsdale is a coastal village in Sutherland at the mouth of the River Helmsdale.
- Herriot Court and Herriot Street (Richmond) - despite the corrupted spelling on some maps and some street signs, these streets were named after Heriot Row in Edinburgh (McArthur, 2006, p. 56).
- Highfield Terrace (Newfield) - named for a hamlet in Fife (McArthur, 2006, p. 56) - see also Orwell Crescent and Prospect Terrace.
- Iona Street, Iona Court and Iona Place (Strathern) - Iona is a small island off the Isle of Mull in the Hebrides which was used as a base for St Columba and other Irish monks from which to convert the Scots, Picts and Northumbrians to Christianity. The picture here of Iona Abbey is via Wikimedia.
- Irvine Street (Wallacetown) - Irvine is a town and ancient royal burgh in North Ayrshire, taking its name from the River Irvine which enters the Firth of Clyde at Irvine Bay (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 583).
- Isla Street (Hawthorndale) - The River Isla rises in northwest Angus near Glas Maol in the Cairngorms National Park and flows in a southerly direction through Strathmore before joining the River Tay about 8 miles north of Perth. Isla Street, however, was not named after the Scottish river but was named instead for Isla Williams, the wife of the engineer involved in surveying the street (McArthur, 2006, p. 58)
- Jed Street (Invercargill) - Jed Water, rising in the Cheviot Hills, near Carter Bar on the border with England, is a tributary of the River Teviot. The market town of Jedburgh is situated on Jed Water.
- Kelso Crescent and Kelso Place (Strathern) - Kelso (pronounced 'Kelsie' locally) is a market town at the confluence of the rivers Teviot and Tweed in the former county of Roxburghshire (now part of Scottish Borders). Kelso means 'chalk hill', from the Old English 'calc' (chalk) and 'hoe' (hill spur), itself a borrowing from Old Welsh Calchvynydd, 'chalk mountain' (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 599)
- Kelvin Street (Avenal/Invercargill - a main road) - The River Kelvin rises in Dullatur Bog to the east of Kilsyth in North Lanarkshire and joins the River Clyde at Glasgow; the name possibly means 'narrow water' from the Gaelic words 'caol' (narrow) and 'abhainn' (river) (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 600). It is equally likely that the name is ultimately of Cumbric/Old Welsh origin from the words 'cul' (narrow) and 'afon' (river) since the old kingdom of Strathclyde remained largely Welsh-speaking until the 11th century when it was united with the kingdom of Scotland. The graphic shows the River Kelvin overlooked by the University of Glasgow.
- Kilmarnock Avenue (Strathern), Kilmarnock Court (Strathern) and Kilmarnock Street (Wallacetown) - Kilmarnock is an industrial town in East Ayrshire, some 30 km (18 miles) southwest of Glasgow. Among the town's many industries is whisky blending, established in 1820 by a local grocer, Johnny Walker.
- Kinloch Street (Prestonville) - There are many villages in the Scottish Highlands called Kinloch - from Gaelic words meaning 'head of the lake' - and many more with qualifiers (usually the name of the loch), to distinguish one village from another, e.g. Kinlochleven, Kinlochmoidart and Kinlochbervie, among many others.
- Kinmont Crescent (Newfield) - there is a Kinmonth in Perth & Kinross. However, there are also places called Kinmont Beck and Kinmont Buck Barrow just over the border in Cumbria, making this street name possibly English rather than Scottish. One wonders whether the name is a reference to William Armstrong, the 'Kinmont Willie' of Sir Walter Scott's ballad about a Scottish Border Reiver notorious for his raids into England and who escaped from Carlisle Castle in 1596.
- Kirkbride Street (Wallacetown) - Given the Ayrshire theme to street names in Wallacetown, this is probably a reference to Kirkbride Church (now a ruin) or its kirkyard (which was still in use as late as 1913) a few miles northwest of Maybole. (Kirkbride Kirkyard)
- Kirkoswald Street (Wallacetown) - Kirkoswald is a village in South Ayrshire, midway between Maybole and Turnberry. The village has strong associations with Robert Burns, who went to school there. Souter Johnnie's Cottage, the home of John Davidson (the village cobbler who was Burn's model for his character 'Souter Johnnie') is now owned by the National Trust for Scotland and is open to the public.
- Lamond Street (Rosedale/Hargest) - this street appears as Lomond Street in some publications and could therefore be a corrupted reference to the famous Scottish loch (McArthur, 2006, p. 62)
- Largs Street (Wallacetown) - Largs is a town in North Ayrshire on the Firth of Clyde. The name is derived from Gaelic 'learg' (hillside) with the addition of the English plural -s (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 645) The illustration shows the ferry to great Cumbrae leaving Largs.
- Lauder Crescent and Lauder Place (Heidelberg) - Lauder is a small town and royal burgh in Lauderdale, north of Melrose in the former county of Berwickshire (now part of Scottish Borders). The town is situated on Leader Water. The river's name appears to be derived from Old Celtic roots 'lou' (to wash or cleanse) and 'dubro' (river), suggestive of a river that 'washes' the soil or land through which it flows (Room, 2003, p. 279; Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 646; Mills, 2011, p.289).
- Lees Street (Gladstone) - named by John Turnbull Thomson after Lees House, an estate near Coldstream in the Scottish Borders (McArthur, 2006, p. 63) - see also Ramrig Street and Swinton Street.
- Leet Street (Invercargill) - Leet Water in Berwickshire is a minor tributary of the River Tweed. Rising near Hume Castle, it flows past Leitholm before joining the Tweed at Coldstream on the English border.
- Leith Street (Windsor) - Leith is a district of the City of Edinburgh. Located at the mouth of the Water of Leith, it serves as Edinburgh's port and was a separate burgh prior to 1920. McArthur (2006, p. 63) speculates that Leith Street was named by Captain William David Inverarity because he may have been stationed at Leith during his military career with the British Army. See also Perth Street, Stirling Street and St Andrews Street.
- Leven Street (Invercargill) - At least three Scottish rivers are called River Leven: (1) a river originating in Loch Leven, Kinross (the loch is pictured here), which flows east through Fife, passing the town of Glenrothes before discharging into the Firth of Forth at the coastal town of Leven north of Buckhaven; (2) the southern outflow of Loch Lomond which passes through the towns of Alexandria and Renton before joining the Clyde at Dumbarton; (3) a short, 5 km-long river originating in Blackwater Reservoir to the northeast of Glen Coe and empting into the head of Loch Leven at the village of Kinlochleven. Leven is probably derived from an Old Celtic word for elm (Nicolaisen, 2001, p. 228). It is interesting to note, in this connection, that the modern Gaelic and Welsh words for an elm tree are 'leamhan' and 'llwyfen' respectively, the Gaelic 'mh' and Welsh 'f' being pronounced 'v'.
- Liddel Street (West Invercargill) - Liddel Water is a river which rises in the Cheviot Hills, near Peel Fell on the border with England. The river flows in a south-westerly direction, passing the villages of Riccarton and Newcastleton. From Kershopefoot to its confluence with the River Esk, Liddel Water serves as the boundary between Scotland and England.
- Lockerbie Street (Turnbull Thomson Park) - Lockerbie is a town some 16 km (10 miles) northeast of Dumfries, in Annandale, off the A74 motorway. Lockerbie made headline news in 1988 when Pan Am flight 103 from London to New York was blown up by terrorists as it passed high above the town, killing all 259 passengers on board and 11 people on the ground.
- Lorn Street (Glengarry) - Lorn is an alternative spelling of Lorne, a region of Argyll in the west of Scotland which derived its name from a 6th century Celtic prince (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 709). It is also the name of a settlement on the banks of Loch Lomond, centred on the old Lorn Mill, and which is today a popular tourist spot.
- Lothian Crescent (Strathern) - Lothian is an ancient kingdom on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, centred on the city of Edinburgh. The name is used today by three unitary authorities: West Lothian, Midlothian and East Lothian.
- Lyon St (Glengarry) - the River Lyon rises near Ben Dorain and flows in an easterly direction through Glen Lyon to join the River Tay near the village of Dull in Perthshire. The origin of the name of the Scottish river is obscure (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 469).
- Mauchline Street (Wallacetown) - Mauchline is a village in East Ayrshire, about 13 km (8 miles) south-east of Kilmarnock. The village has close associations with Robert Burns, who lived at nearby Lochlea farm and at Mossgiel between 1777 and 1789.
- Montrose Street (Gladstone) - Montrose is a town and royal burgh on the North Sea coast in Angus (pictured here). Montrose has become one of the best-travelled Scottish place names around the English-speaking world, probably because of Sir Walter Scott's novel 'A Legend of Montrose', first published in 1819, and which was set in the 1640s during which the Earl of Montrose raised a Highland force to assist King Charles I in his struggle against the Scottish Covenanters who had sided with the English Parliament.
- Moray Crescent (Grasmere) - Moray is an old kingdom and a former county (now a unitary authority) in north-east Scotland. As pointed out by McArthur (2006, p. 71), Sir Andrew Moray was a friend of William Wallace and died at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 during the wars of Scottish resistance to English overlordship of Scotland.
- Morton Street (Georgetown - a main road) - possibly named after Morton Mains, Morton Castle, or the parish of Morton in Nithsdale, Dumfries-shire since the street was first laid out on paddocks which were owned by Captain Elles, who came from Saltcoats in Ayrshire (McArthur, 2006, pp. 71-72).
- Ness Street (Invercargill/Appleby/Kew) - The River Ness is a short river linking the northern end of Loch Ness with Beauly Firth; it forms part of the Caledonian Canal and the town of Inverness is situated on its estuary.
- Nevis Crescent (Grasmere) - This is a reference quite possibly to Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles, or Loch Nevis, a sea loch in Knoydart opening into the Sound of Sleat. McArthur (2006, p. 72) implies that the Invercargill street took its name from Nevis in Central Otago, which in turn had been named because of its resemblance to Scotland's Ben Nevis.
- Nith Street (Invercargill/Appleby) - The River Nith is a major river in southwest Scotland. Rising to the east of Dalmellington in East Ayrshire, it flows for a short distance northwards toward New Cumnock before heading south through Nithsdale to enter the Solway Firth south of Dumfries. Its name comes from an Old Celtic word meaning 'new one', "perhaps referring to its constantly changing course" (Room, 2003, p. 344). The modern Welsh word for 'new' is 'newydd' and is clearly cognate with Nith.
- Oban Place (Rockdale) - Oban (pictured on the right) is a port and tourist centre on the west coast of Argyll, some 95 km (60 miles) northwest of Glasgow. Its name comes from the Gaelic for 'little bay' (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 829).
- Orkney Street (Waikiwi) - The Orkney Islands are a group of some 70 islands off the north-east coast of Scotland. McArthur (2006, p. 74) points out that Henry Gray, one of the first settlers on the land where Orkney Street is, came from Kirkwall in the Orkney Islands.
- Orwell Crescent (Newfield) - named for a village and/or parish in Fife (McArthur, 2006, p. 74) - see also Highfield Terrace and Prospect Terrace.
- Paisley Street, Paisley Court and Paisley Place (Kew) - Paisley is a large town to the west of Glasgow in Renfrewshire, famous for the shawls woven there in the 19th century which featured an intricate pattern copied from Kashmiri shawls in India.
- Perth Street (Windsor) - Perth is a city and royal burgh on the banks of the River Tay in central Scotland. McArthur (2006, pp. 75-76) attributes the name of this street to Captain William David Inverarity, who purchased an estate in 1858 which became the township of Clinton. McArthur speculates that Perth Street was named by Captain Inverarity because he may have been stationed in Perth during his military career with the Gordon Highlanders. See also Leith Street, Stirling Street and St Andrews Street. The picture on the right is St Leonard's in the Fields Church in Perth.
- Princes St (Strathern) - named after the famous thoroughfare in the centre of Edinburgh (McArthur, 2006, p. 76)
- Prospect Terrace (Newfield) - named for a hamlet in Newport-on-Tay, Fife (McArthur, 2006, p. 76) - see also Highfield Terrace and Orwell Crescent.
- Ramrig Street (Gladstone) - Ramrig is a village about one mile northwest of Ladykirk, near Coldstream, in the former county of Berwickshire. Ramrig Street formed part of John Turnbull Thomson's Coldstream Township. See also Lees Street and Swinton Street.
- Rannoch Street (Rockdale) - Rannoch is a Highland region in central Scotland; its main features are Loch Rannoch on the River Tummel and Rannoch Moor, a large expanse of bracken-covered peat land to the east of Ben Nevis, notable for its wildlife.
- Renfrew Street (Grasmere/Waikiwi) - Renfrew is a town and royal burgh to the west of Glasgow and north of Paisley. Baron Renfrew, a title awarded by the burgh to the heir to the Scottish throne, is still borne by the Prince of Wales.
- Rothesay Place (Rockdale) - Rothesay is the main town on the Isle of Bute in the west of Scotland and is a popular holiday destination for Glaswegians. The Duke of Rothesay is the most important of the Scottish titles borne by the Prince of Wales.
- Skye Street (Heidelberg) - the Isle of Skye in the Hebrides off the west coast of Scotland is perhaps the best known of all the Scottish islands because of its association with Flora MacDonald who helped Bonnie Prince Charlie escape from the Outer Hebrides disguised as her maid.
- Spey Street (Invercargill) - The River Spey is a major river in north-east Scotland. The third-longest river in the country, it rises near Carn Leac in the Monadhliath Mountains, close to the source of the River Roy (but which flows in the opposite direction). The river follows a generally north-eastern course for 158 km (98 miles) before emptying into the North Sea at Spey Bay in Moray. Located on or near its banks are several towns including Kingussie, Aviemore, Aberlour and Fochabers. According to Nicolaisen (2001), Room (2003) and Ayto & Crofton (2005), the name is considered to be possibly pre-Celtic, of unknown meaning.
- St Andrews Street (Richmond/Glengarry - a main road) - St Andrews could refer to Scotland's patron saint, St Andrew, or the university town and royal burgh in Fife that was named in his honour. McArthur (2006, p. 80) speculates that St Andrews Street was named by Captain William David Inverarity because he may have been stationed there during his military career with the Gordon Highlanders. See also Leith Street, Perth Street and Stirling Street. Graphic is of the Swilcan Burn and Club House, St Andrews golf course.
- Stirling Street (Windsor) - Stirling is an important town and ancient royal burgh on the River Forth in central Scotland, famous for its castle. The town featured prominently in Scottish history for many centuries because of its strategic position as a gateway to the Highlands, the North East, Fife and the south. McArthur (2006, p. 83) speculates that Stirling Street was named by Captain William David Inverarity because he may have been stationed at the 92nd Regiment of Foot depot at Stirling during his military career with the Gordon Highlanders. See also Leith Street, Perth Street and St Andrews Street.
- Swinton Street (Gladstone) - Swinton is a village north of Coldstream in the Scottish Borders. As pointed out by McArthur (2006, p. 84), the village of Swinton was "well loved" by John Turnbull Thomson. See also Lees Street and Ramrig Street.
- Tay Street (Invercargill - a main road) - The River Tay (pictured here) is one of Scotland's principal rivers and arguably its longest. Rising in Loch Tay in the heart of Scotland, the river follows a course of about 193 kilometres (120 miles) to the North Sea. Among its many tributaries are important rivers such as the Lyon, the Tummel, the Isla, the Almond and the Earn. Located on its banks are two major towns: Perth and Dundee. The river's volume of discharge into the sea is the highest of any river in the United Kingdom. The name is considered to be possibly pre-Celtic from a root word meaning 'to flow' and is therefore probably cognate with the meaning of other well-known British rivers including the Tamar, Thames and Tyne (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 1090; Nicolaisen, 2001, p. 244)
- Teviot Street (Appleby/Georgetown) - A river in the Scottish Borders, the Teviot rises on the border with Dumfries-shire and flows in a north-easterly direction past the village of Teviothead and the town of Hawick to join the River Tweed at Kelso. Ayto & Crofton (2005, p. 1095) suggest that the name is Celtic or pre-Celtic, with the possible meaning of 'powerful one'. In this connection, Ayto & Crofton draw attention to the Sanskrit word tavás, 'to surge'.
- Thornhill Street (Rockdale) - Considering the other streets in this part of Rockdale that have Scottish names, Thornhill could be a reference to the small town in Nithsdale, southwest Scotland, located on the banks of the River Nith.
- Thurso Street (Waverley) - Thurso is a town in Caithness located on the estuary of the River Thurso. Ayto & Crofton (2005, p. 1107) state that the river Thurso means 'river of the bull' since the nearby promontory was known to the Romans as Tarvedunum, 'fortress of the bull'. A connection with the Norse god Thor, as previously thought, seems unlikely.
- Tummel Street and Tummel Crescent (Glengarry) - The River Tummel, about 60 km (37 miles) in length, is an important tributary of the River Tay. The river's source is Loch Rannoch in the heart of Scotland; the river flows in an easterly direction, passing the town of Pitlochry before joining the Tay some 8 km (5 miles) south of this town. Tummel is from the Gaelic 'teimheal', suggesting the meaning 'gloomy or dark river' (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 1133), an allusion, according to Mills (2011, p. 471) to the river's heavily wooded gorges.
- Tweed Street (West Invercargill/Appleby/Georgetown/Newfield/Rockdale - a main road) - The River Tweed is the most important river in the Scottish Borders and the fourth longest river in Scotland (after the Tay, Clyde and Spey). It rises at Tweed's Well, about 8 kilometres (5 miles) north of the town of Moffat. Among the many towns and villages on its banks are Peebles, Melrose, Kelso and Coldstream. From Coldstream the river serves as the boundary between Scotland and England and enters the North Sea at Berwick-upon-Tweed. Tweed is considered to be an Old Celtic or pre-Celtic name possibly meaning 'powerful one' (Room, 2003, p. 42; Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 1138) though Nicolaisen (2001, p.246) states that the derivation of the name has not been explained satisfactorily. The illustration shows the river Tweed at Peebles.
- Tyne Street (Appleby) - One can be forgiven for assuming that this must be a reference to the River Tyne which forms the boundary between the northern English counties of Northumberland and Durham and which flows through the city of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; however, there is another River Tyne to its north which rises in the Moorfoot Hills in Midlothian, to the south-east of Edinburgh, and which flows in a north-easterly direction to reach the North Sea at Tyne Mouth on Belhaven Bay near Dunbar. It is possible, of course, that John Turnbull Thomson may have selected the name Tyne as a reference to both the Scottish river and the English river in his native Northumberland. Tyne is considered to be an Old Celtic or pre-Celtic name meaning 'flowing one' (Mills, 2011, p. 471). Nicolaison (2001), an authority on Scottish place names, is more tentative about the origin of the name, which he considers to be similar to other river names such as the Tay, Tain, Tanar, Teviot and even the Thames in the south of England.
- Yarrow Street (Invercargill/Richmond/Glengarry - a main road) - Yarrow Water is a river in the Ettrick Forest; it rises near St Mary's Loch and joins Ettrick Water near Selkirk. Yarrow is believed to be a name of Old Celtic origin, from 'garw' meaning 'rough' (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 1229). This belief seems to rest on the fact that the river was recorded as 'Gierwa' around 1120 and that 'garw' is the modern Welsh word for rough (Mills, 2011, p. 515).
- Ythan Street (Invercargill/Appleby) - The River Ythan in Aberdeenshire rises near Ythanwells to the east of Strathbogie, flowing generally in an easterly direction before entering the North Sea at Newburgh. Its Old Celtic meaning is said to be 'chattering stream' (Ayto & Crofton, 2005, p. 1237). In this regard, Nicolaisen (2001) points to the similarity with the modern Welsh word 'iaith', meaning 'language'.
In addition to the above listed Scottish street names, Invercargill and its suburbs have a large number of streets that were named after Scottish settlers or their descendants. Streets such as Bainfield Road (Waikiwi), McIvor Road (Anderson Park), McQuarrie Street (Kingswell/Tisbury) and Ritchie Street (Richmond) are obvious references to Scotsmen. Streets with names that are less obviously Scottish include Chesney Street in Tisbury (which was originally McChesney Street), Fowler Road in West Plains, Janet Street in Appleby and Woodhouse Street in Appleby, all of which were named after Scottish settlers and/or family members. Invercargill also has several street names which could be termed 'patriotic', such as Bruce Street and its neighbour Wallace Street in Waikiwi, which were named to commemorate Robert The Bruce and William Wallace who fought to secure Scotland's independence in the early 14th century. And several streets look as if they could have been named after places in Scotland but were actually named for individuals, most of whom had Scottish connections, e.g. Erskine Road (Otatara), Hamilton Street (Strathern), Kirkwood Lane (Invercargill) and Stobo Street (Grasmere). Newbie Street and Newbie Place (Heidelberg) on the other hand are questionably Scottish names. Newbie is a village on the Solway Firth, south-west of the town of Annan. These streets were named, however, by Ernest Norman New (1932-2005), surveyor and town planner (McArthur, 2006, p. 72).
Thanks to Wendy McArthur's meticulous research, it is possible to estimate the proportion of roads, streets, avenues, lanes, places and crescents in Invercargill, Wallacetown and Bluff which were named either for places in Scotland or for Scottish settlers and their descendants, or which have other forms of connection with Scotland. The proportion of street names that can be classed as Scottish has yet to be determined precisely. A preliminary analysis suggests, however, that the figure could be as high as fifty per cent. It is also probable that the number of Scottish names could outnumber those of English, Irish and Welsh origin combined. The author of this article intends performing a comprehensive statistical analysis of Invercargill's street names in due course.
Judging by the names of its suburbs and streets, Invercargill appears to be one of the most 'Scottish' towns and cities outside Scotland. The city was planned in the 1850s in response to the need for a port close to the Otago goldfields. From the start, the settlement attracted large numbers of Scottish immigrants. The province of Otago (from which Southland was detached in 1861) was a major destination for Scottish settlers and for members of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in particular. Although they were mainly Lowlanders, Scottish settlers in both Southland and Otago soon embraced the symbols of Highland culture, which resulted in the formation of pipe bands, clan societies and Highland Games. New Zealand's first civilian pipe band was in fact set up in Invercargill, in 1896. And the burr in the accents of people in Southland (particularly those living in Invercargill's hinterland) is considered to be of Scottish origin. An article by John Wilson in The Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand (Scots in New Zealand ) gives a brief account of Scottish culture in New Zealand, and in South Island in particular.
- Ayto, John & Crofton, Ian (Compilers) (2005). Brewer's Britain & Ireland: The History, Culture, Folklore and Etymology of 7,500 Places in These Islands. (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London).
- Black, George F. (1996). The Surnames of Scotland (Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh).
- Collins Gem Scots Dictionary (2000). HarperCollins Publishers.
- Google Maps for the names of suburbs and settlements in and around Invercargill.
- McArthur, Wendy (2006). What's in a Name? The Origin of the Street and Suburb Names of Invercargill, Bluff, Otatara, and Makarewa, Wallacetown and Wyndham. (Invercargill: The Author)
- Mills, A.D. (2011). A Dictionary of British Place Names. (Oxford University Press, Oxford).
- Nicolaisen, W.F.H. (2001). Scottish Place-Names: Their Study and Significance (New Edition). (John Donald, Edinburgh).
- Room, Adrian (2003). The Penguin Dictionary of British Place Names. (Penguin Books, London).
- Scarlett, James D. (1975). The Tartans of the Scottish Clans. (Collins, Glasgow and London).
- Websites, place name gazetteers and published Ordnance Survey maps of British and Irish cities, towns, villages and counties.
© Ian Kendall Melbourne, Australia, March 2014.
If you wish to contact Ian about his research, his e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org.
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