Scottish Place Names
- Auckland, New Zealand
For comparability with other cities around the world, Auckland has been defined as the entire urban area from Hatfields Beach and Whangaparaoa in the north to Drury in the south, and from Waiheke Island and Maraetai in the east to the Waitakere Regional Park and Kumeu in the west. Of the names of the 320 suburbs in the Greater Auckland area that have been identified to date, 62 (19.4%) can be found in Scotland, or are based on Scottish family names or noble titles. Of course, many of the names are used in other parts of the British Isles as well, but at least 25 of them (7.8%) appear to have a unique connection with Scotland, whether directly through Scottish settlers, or indirectly, e.g., through royal titles.
Picture of Auckland skyline via Wikipedia.
Official suburbs and other localities with names that occur only in Scotland and not elsewhere in the British Isles, and/or are definitely or most probably of Scottish origin are:
- Albany and Albany Heights - there is an Albany Burn in South Ayrshire. Although Albany occurs in some English place names as well, the origin of the name is Scottish. Albany/Albion is derived from the ancient Celtic name for Britain, giving rise to 'Alba' as the Modern Gaelic name for Scotland. The Auckland suburb was named in 1890 in honour of Queen Victoria's youngest son, Prince Leopold, the Duke of Albany. The title is a Scottish one and was first conferred in 1398 upon Robert, brother of Robert III (born John) of Scotland.
- Balmoral (Aberdeenshire). This suburb was named after the royal residence on the river Dee, Aberdeenshire, built for Queen Victoria. The illustration shows Balmoral Castle on a £100 banknote issued by the Royal Bank of Scotland.
- Campbells Bay - although there are no places in Scotland with this precise name, Campbell is a well-known Scottish family name. The Campbells were once the most powerful of all the Highland clans. The origin of the name is Gaelic - Cambeul - meaning 'crooked mouth'. According to Dymock (1994), this suburb recalls an early landowner, possibly Duncan Campbell.
- Cuthill (East Lothian, Highland and West Lothian).
- Forrest Hill (Forrest in Dumfries & Galloway and North Lanarkshire, Forrest Lane and Lodge in Dumfries & Galloway, Forrest Slack in Aberdeenshire, and several other references to places featuring this Scottish surname). The name of this North Shore suburb commemorates Lieutenant Hugh Alexander Forrest of the New Zealand Rifles, who was killed on active service in France during World War I. His father William lived at 31 Old Lake Road (North Shore Street Names, Auckland City Libraries).
- Glendowie - Black (1996), the authority on Scottish family names, attributes the Scottish surname of Dowie to Macgilladubh (Gaelic for 'son of the black lad'). But according to the Dowie Family Website, not all Dowies have an ancient Scottish origin. Some Dowies are likely to be descendants of Normans from Douai in France and others would find that they are descended from early Irish immigrants to the west of Scotland. According to the Wikipedia article on Glendowie, the suburb takes its name from a farm estate - Glen Dowie - built by Richard James Taylor. Two of Richard's brothers also had farms in the area (see Glen Innes below).
- Glen Innes - there are places in Moray called Innes Canal, Innes House, Innes Links and Innesmill, all presumably based on the Scottish family name of Innes, whose family tartan is shown here. This suburb owes its name to a farming estate established by William Innes Taylor, a brother of Richard James Taylor (see Glendowie above). A third brother, Charles John Taylor, established his farm nearby in what is today the suburb of St. Heliers. A fourth brother, Allen Kerr Taylor, lived near Mt. Albert in a house called 'Alberton.' One presumes that the Taylor brothers were Scottish.
- Henderson, Henderson North and Henderson Valley - there is a Henderson's Rock in Argyll & Bute, presumably a reference to an individual bearing the Scottish family name of Henderson. The name has also travelled to England, e.g., Henderson's House in County Durham. According to Scarlett (1975), the Henderson clan can trace its ancestry to two sources: the Henrysons/Henrisons from Dumfiesshire in the border region, and Clan MacEanruig, or MacKendrick, who anglicised their name as Henderson, 'son of Henry' and who held lands near Glencoe in the Highlands. Dymock (1994, p. 45) states that these suburbs were named for Thomas Henderson, "early trader and 1860s flourmiller." This may not be entirely correct. Both the Wikipedia article on Henderson and an article on the history of Henderson by Raewynn Robertson of the Waitakere Library suggest that Thomas Henderson was a saw miller. Together with his brother-in-law John MacFarlane, Thomas Henderson purchased large tracts of land containing Kauri, Rimu and other timber trees, the logs of which could be driven down stream to a site where they proposed to establish a mill. The first sawmill in Henderson was built in 1849 by Charles Marsden (called Dundee Saw Mills after his home town). "Long-John McLeod" became mill manager in 1854 and in the following year Henderson and MacFarlane made improvements to the mill with the result that it became known as Henderson's Mill. The sawmill ceased production in 1868. According to information supplied by Anne Stewart Ball in a personal communication received in August 2008, Thomas Henderson was born in Scotland.
- Highland Park - The name of this eastern suburb no doubt recalls the Highlands of Scotland. All the streets in the northern half of this suburb are named after places that can be found in the mountainous regions of northern, central and north-eastern Scotland: Aberfeldy, Aviemore, Ballater, Cairngorm, Clunie, Cromdale, Dalwhinnie, Glenshee, Kincraig, Kingussie, Pitlochry, Struan and Tromie.
- Laingholm and Laingholm Central - Laing is a Scottish surname and 'holm' is the Scottish spelling of the Old Norse word for a water meadow. These suburbs in Waitakere City were named after George and John Laing, pioneers of the 1850s. Prior to the mid-1920s, Laingholm was known as Roseneath, from Rosneath in Argyll & Bute (information supplied by Wayne Mackenzie, New Zealand, a descendant of the Laings).
- Leabank (Aberdeenshire).
- Long Bay (Little Cumbrae Island, North Ayrshire). Dymock (1994) considers this to be a purely descriptive name; Long Bay is indeed significantly wider (it is about four kilometres in length) than most of the other North Shore bays. Nevertheless, the fact that many of these bays have Scottish names (Campbells Bay, Murrays Bay, Rothesay Bay and possibly Browns Bay) increases the chances that Long Bay may also have a Scottish connection. In Scotland, Long Bay is barely 10 miles (16 kilometres) distant from Rothesay Bay as the crow flies, though separated by the Firth of Clyde.
- Lynfield (Orkney Islands, spelt Lynnfield). According to information received from local historian Lisa Truttman, Lynfield was the name of a poultry farm on the outskirts of the modern suburb. The local high school had adopted the name since the old farm once bordered the school property. "The place name, as I recall, came from Australia." (Lisa Truttman, personal communication, 3 June 2009). Whether or not there is an indirect link with Scotland would depend on the reason for the Australian name. Searches to date have failed to uncover an Australian locality with this name, though an Australian street called Lynfield Drive exists in metropolitan Brisbane.
- McLaren Park - there are no Scottish towns, districts or villages with this precise name but McLaren is definitely a Scottish family name. The MacLarens or MacLaurins ('sons of Lawrence') are an ancient Perthshire clan, and were staunch allies of the Stewarts of Appin. This suburb, in Waitakere City, was named after Auckland-born Bruce McLaren (1937-1970), New Zealand Formula 1 driver and founder of the McLaren Formula 1 Team (Wikipedia article on McLaren Park, New Zealand).
- Morningside (Dumfries & Galloway, City of Edinburgh, North Lanarkshire and Perth & Kinross). The illustration shows a typical villa in Morningside, Edinburgh. The name comes from a farm estate called 'Morningside' that was subdivided in 1865 for housing lots (Wikipedia article on Morningside, New Zealand).
- Murrays Bay - Murray is one of the best known Scottish family names, derived from the name of the area (Moray) in which the Pictish founder of the clan was granted land. Examples of places in Scotland based on this name include Murray's Hill (Perth & Kinross), Murrayfield (Edinburgh), Murraythwaite (Dumfries & Galloway) and many others. The name has also travelled to England, e.g., Murray's Rock in Devon and is claimed as an Irish name as well. According to Dymock (1994), this North Shore suburb recalls a settler in the late 1890s or early 1900s.
- Panmure (Panmure Gardens and Testimonial in Angus). The name of this suburb honours the second Lord Panmure (11th Earl of Dalhousie), born at Brechin Castle in Angus and who was Secretary of State for War and the Colonies during the latter part of the Crimean War, serving under Lord Palmerston.
- Rosebank Road - there are many places in Scotland called Rosebank (in Angus, the Scottish Borders, City of Edinburgh, Dumfries & Galloway, East Dunbartonshire, Fife, Highland, Moray, Orkney Islands, South Lanarkshire and West Lothian). The name also occurs in Devon, England but is far more Scottish than English.
- Rothesay Bay (Argyll & Bute - illustrated here).
- Sunnybrae (Aberdeenshire, Orkney Islands and Perth & Kinross). Brae is a Scots word meaning a hill or hillside.
- Swanson - Swanson does not seem to occur as a place name anywhere in the British Isles. It is, however, a Scottish family name of Norse origin. Sweyn Asliefson was a 12th century pirate and the younger brother of Gunni. Clan Gunn and its Swanson sept owe their origins and names to these brothers. Sweyn was a common Viking name, giving rise to place names in other parts of the UK such as Swansea in Wales and Swanland in East Yorkshire. According to Dymock (1994), the Auckland suburb was named for William Swanson, a pioneer sawmiller. Swanson's ancestry has not been reported, but was most probably Scottish.
Some of the following localities may also prove on further investigation to have a link with Scotland. However, these names are also associated with other parts of the British Isles.
- Addison - This is considered to be both a Scottish and an English family name, not uncommon, says Black (1996), in eastern counties from Linlithgow to Aberdeen. It is derived from "son of Addie", which is a diminutive of Adam and is therefore the same as Adamson. Records of the name in Scotland go back to 1367. The only place in the British Isles called Addison is in the northern English town of Gateshead, Greater Newcastle-upon-Tyne, while perhaps the most famous bearer of the name, Joseph Addison, the 18th century essayist and publisher, was also English.
- Ardmore (Aberdeenshire, Argyll & Bute and Highland) also found in Cheshire, England and County Waterford, Ireland. The illustration above is of Ardmore Point in Argyll & Bute. No explanation has been found for the origin of the name of this suburb with the result that it would be premature to attribute it to one of the places in Scotland.
- Arkles Bay (Arkleston in Renfrewshire) also three places in North Yorkshire containing the element Arkles. This suburb was named for the Arkles family, proprietors of a local guesthouse (Dymock, 1994). Arkles is considered to be an English family name going back to Norman times, though it is thought to have made its first appearance in Berwickshire, Scotland, according to the House of Names heraldic website.
- Belmont (Scottish Borders, Shetland Islands and South Ayrshire) also found in England, Ireland and Wales and was an extremely popular choice of name in all English-speaking countries during the nineteenth century. Its origin is ultimately French - 'beautiful mountain'. In the Wikipedia article on Belmont it is stated that this North Shore suburb takes its name from a farm estate that was subdivided in 1885.
- Brookfield (Renfrewshire) but also found throughout England and on the Isle of Man.
- Browns Bay - there are many places in both Scotland and England that have 'Brown' as an element in their name. The surname Brown is also very common in both countries, with surveys in the 1970s suggesting that it is the second most common family name in Scotland (after Smith) and the third most common in England (after Smith and Jones). Dymock (1994) attributes the name to Peter Brown, a local farmer.
- Coatesville (Coates in the City of Edinburgh, East Lothian, Fife and Midlothian) but Coates is just as commonly found throughout England. Coates is an English surname, which reduces the chances of a Scottish connection.
- Glenfield (Orkney Islands) and Glenfield North by association but Glenfield is also the name of a place in Leicestershire, England.
- Glenvar - there is a hotel in Blairgowrie (Perth & Kinross) called Glenvar and a Glenvarragill House in Highland but Glenvar is also the name of a place in County Donegal, Ireland.
- Hill Park (Argyll & Bute; also Hillpark in Moray and the City of Glasgow) though Hill Park is found in three English counties as well.
- Hunters Corner - Hunter occurs in many place names throughout Scotland. The list includes Aberdeenshire (Hunter's Hill and Lodge), Angus (Hunter's Path and Hunters Hill), Argyll & Bute (Hunter's Quay), Scottish Borders (Hunter Hill and Huntershall), Dumfries & Galloway (Hunter House, Hunter's Gate, Hunterheck), East Ayrshire (Hunter's Meadow, Hunterston), North Ayrshire (Hunterston, Hunterston House, Hunterston Sands), Perth & Kinross (Hunterhall) and South Lanarkshire (Hunterlees). Hunter is found even more commonly throughout England but the surname Hunter is found frequently enough in Scotland for there to be a clan tartan - see illustration.
- Massey, Massey East, Massey North and Massey West - Massey is considered to be a Scottish and northern English family name, of Norman origin. Black (1996), however, only lists Massie, from the French Massť, a pet name for Mathew. According to the article in Wikipedia on Massey, the suburb was named after William Massey, a former Prime Minister of New Zealand. William ("Farmer Bill") Ferguson Massey (1856-1925) grew up in Limavady, County Derry, Northern Ireland. Judging by his name, and the fact that he was a Presbyterian, it is highly probable that William Massey's ancestry was Scots-Irish, though the immediate link is with Ireland rather than Scotland or England.
- Meadowbank (Aberdeenshire, City of Edinburgh and Perth & Kinross) also in Cheshire, England. The illustration shows the Commonwealth Games at Meadowbank Stadium, Edinburgh, in 1986. The Auckland suburb takes its name from Meadowbank Road, which in turn was named for a farm in the 1870s (Auckland Street Names, Auckland City Libraries).
- Mellons Bay - there are places in Highland called Mellon Charles and Mellon Udrigle. However, the name is also found in Wales (St. Mellons and Old St. Mellons in Cardiff) and in Cornwall (Portmellon). As a surname, Mellon is regarded as a variant of O'Mallan, a family name originating in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. Mellons is also a French family name. These considerations open up several possibilities for the source of the name of this suburb.
- Newton (Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll & Bute, Scottish Borders, Dumfries & Galloway, Fife, Highland, Inverclyde, North Ayrshire, Midlothian, Moray, Orkney Islands, Perth & Kinross, Shetland Islands, Stirling, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian and Western Isles. There are also many other places such as Newton Mearns in East Renfrewshire, Newton of Ardtoe in Highland, Newton of Balcormo in Fife, etc.) Newton is just as commonly found throughout England and, to a lesser extent, Wales. There are in fact very few counties in the whole of Great Britain which do not have at least one Newton. Surprisingly, the name is not used in Ireland.
- Northpark (Argyll & Bute, Aberdeenshire and Dumfries & Galloway; also North Park in Dumfries & Galloway) but there is also a North Park in West Yorkshire.
- Red Hill (Aberdeenshire) also all over England.
- Rosehill (Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll & Bute, Dumfries & Galloway, Highland, Midlothian, Moray, Orkney Islands, South Lanarkshire and Stirling) also common in England and Wales.
- The Grange (Angus, City of Edinburgh and Highland) but far more commonly found in England and the anglicised parts of Wales and also found on the Isle of Man.
- Wade Heads - there is a Wade Bridge in Highland and Wades Bridge and The Wade Stone in Perth & Kinross, but Wade is found more frequently in English place names. Wade Bridge and Wades Bridge in Scotland are references to Field-Marshall George Wade, the Englishman who was responsible for disarming the Highland clans after the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. As part of the process of pacification of the clans, he built a system of metalled military roads and 40 stone ('Wade') bridges in the Highlands of Scotland between 1726 and 1737 - including the one in Aberfeldy, Perthshire, shown here.
- Westfield (Aberdeenshire, Scottish Borders, East Lothian, Falkirk, Fife, Highland, Moray, North Lanarkshire, Perth & Kinross, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire and West Lothian) but found just as commonly throughout England.
- Windy Ridge (Moray and North Lanarkshire, spelt Windyridge) but found in two English counties as well, also spelt Windyridge.
- Woodlands Park - there are many places called Woodlands in Scotland (in Aberdeenshire, Argyll & Bute, Borders, Dumfries & Galloway, Fife, Highland, Perth & Kinross, South Lanarkshire) but this is equally the case in England and the name is also found in Ireland and Wales.
A final category of suburban names comprises places that can be found in Scotland but which, in Auckland's case, definitely or most probably have no Scottish connection.
- Avondale (Shetland Islands; also Avondale Castle in South Lanarkshire, alternatively known as Strathaven Castle - now a ruin and a Scheduled Ancient Monument accessible to the public) but the name is found in England and Ireland as well as in Scotland. Dymock (1994, p. 17), who probably took her information from Ron Oates' Challenge of the Whau, produced by the Avondale History Group in 1994, attributes the name of this suburb to the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, eldest son of King Edward VII. Like Albany (see above), Avondale is a Scottish title used by the British Royal Family, the title referring to Avondale Castle in South Lanarkshire. Local historian Lisa Truttman (2003, p. 33), however, provides compelling evidence to dispute the link with nobility. "The Auckland suburb of Avondale was not named after the Duke of Clarence and Avondale. Prince Albert Victor was granted these titles nearly a decade (May 1890) after Avondale was gazetted with its name (June 1882, a change from the Whau District). The name Avondale is most likely of Irish origin, not Scottish, as the Chairman of the Road Board at the time, John Bollard, came from County Wicklow, Ireland, near the Avondale Demesne and homestead of Avondale, Charles Parnell's home." (Lisa Truttman, personal communication, 2 June 2009).
- Blockhouse Bay - there is a place in Aberdeenshire called Blockhouse, but in the case of this suburb the name is purely descriptive of the site of one of a series of block houses built in the 1860s for the defence of Auckland in the wars with the Maoris.
- Ellerslie (a house near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, also Ellerslie Farm on the Isle of Man; Elderslie in Renfrewshire has appeared as Ellerslie on earlier Scottish maps). An article in Wikipedia provides the following account of the origin of the name of the suburb in Auckland: "The suburb was named by early local politician and entrepreneur Robert Graham, after his father's home in Lancashire, England. Adjacent to his home, 'Ellerslie House', was a track along which Mrs Graham was in the habit of riding her horse every morning, now a street called Ladies Mile." It is interesting to note that whilst the name of the suburb is essentially an English one, the family name Graham has an ultimately Scottish origin.
- Glen Eden, Glen Eden South and Glen Eden West - Although the names of these suburbs sound Scottish and despite the existence of a regional park in Scotland called Gleneden, they do not appear to have a Scottish connection. Dymock (1994, p. 38) states that the Chairman of the local council at the time the suburb was named came originally from Mount Eden. The suburb of Mount Eden, in turn, had been named for George Eden, the 1st Earl of Auckland, who was Governor-General of India between 1836 and 1842 and who was born in England.
- Newmarket (Western Isles) also in England and Ireland. The name was given when the area developed as a distinct commercial centre, separate from Auckland's Queen Street (Dymock, 1994, p. 85).
- St Johns (Scottish Borders) but found more commonly in England and also on the Isle of Man. The suburb takes its name from St John's Anglican Theological College, established in the 1840s by Bishop George Selwyn (Wikipedia article on Saint Johns, New Zealand, retrieved in March 2008).
- Stanley Bay and Stanley Point (Stanley in Perth & Kinross) but Stanley as a place name is very common throughout England and is also found on the Isle of Man. According to the Auckland City Libraries website, Stanley Bay was named after Captain Owen Stanley (1811-1850) of HMS Britomart, who surveyed the Waitemata Harbour in 1841. Captain Stanley, the son of Edward Stanley, Bishop of Norwich, was an Englishman.
New Zealand was of course a major destination for Scottish settlers, resulting in many Scottish place names in most of its cities and surrounding countryside. Judging purely by its suburban names, Auckland does not appear to be quite so Scottish as the other New Zealand cities. This is partly because of the preponderance of Maori names in this city and partly because of the opportunities provided by Auckland's many coves and inlets to use descriptive names such as Bayview, Edgewater or North Harbour.
Scottish influences on the development of New Zealand's largest city soon become apparent when looking at the names of major thoroughfares throughout the metropolitan area.
- In the central area, main roads and other thoroughfares include Ayr Street, Gladstone Road, Hopetoun Street, Ian McKinnon Drive, Lorne Street and Williamson Avenue. There is also a Scotland Street near Victoria Park and a Scotia Place off Queens Street, while two other side streets off Queen Street look as though they could have been named for two of Sir Walter Scott's works - Waverley and Marmion.
- The northern suburbs have main roads such as Aberdeen Road (Castor Bay), Bute Road (Browns Bay), Eskdale Road (Birkdale), Forrest Hill Road (Forrest Hill), Glencoe Road (Browns Bay), Lauderdale Road (Birkdale) and the Albany Highway.
- The western suburbs have Bruce McLaren Road (McLaren Park), Glendale Road (Glen Eden), Glengarry Road (Glen Eden West) and Rosebank Road (Avondale). .
- The southern suburbs have Balmoral Road (Balmoral), Campbell Road (One Tree Hill), Carr Road and Herd Road (Three Kings), Gillies Avenue (Epsom/Newmarket), Kinross Street (Blockhouse Bay), Neilson Street (Te Papapa), Patteson Avenue (Mission Bay), Richardson Road (Owairaka/Mount Roskill/Waikowhai), St. Andrews Road (Epsom/Three Kings) and, of course, the Ellerslie-Panmure Highway.
- In the south-eastern suburbs (Manukau City) are names such as Aviemore Drive (Highland Park), Kirkbride Road, McKenzie Road, James Fletcher Drive and Wallace Road (all in the Mangere area), Bairds Road (Otara), Carnoustie Drive (Wattle Downs), Elliot Street (Pahurehure), Ferguson Road (Flat Bush), Macleans Road (Eastern Beach), Muirfield Street (Wattle Downs) and Ormiston Road (Flat Bush). The illustration shows Aviemore in the Scottish Highlands.
Many parks and reserves throughout the metropolitan area also have Scottish names. The following list is not necessarily exhaustive - there may be many smaller parks and reserves whose names were not given on the maps that were consulted.
- Central Area: Ayr Reserve (Newmarket), Ballantynes Square (Mount Eden), Carlaw Park (Auckland Domain) and Fraser Park (Parnell).
- Northern Suburbs: Albany Domain (Albany), Albany Scenic Reserve (Albany), Balmain Park (Cheltenham), Lauderdale Reserve (Birkdale), McFetridge Park (Sunnybrae) and Powrie Reserve (Windy Ridge).
- Western Suburbs: Douglas Scenic Reserve (Waiatarua), Henderson Valley Reserve (Western Heights), Henderson Valley Scenic Reserve (Henderson Valley), Inver Road Common (Glen Eden South), Kelvin Strand (Waimanu Bay), McLeod Reserve (Te Atatu South) and Rosebank Park Domain (Rosebank Road).
- Southern Suburbs: Anderson Park (Owairaka), Coxs Bay Reserve (Westmere), Fergusson Avenue Reserve (Sandringham), Fergusson Domain (Oranga), Glendowie Park (Glendowie), Keith Hay Park (Mount Roskill), Melville Park (Epsom), Nicholson Park (Epsom) and Walker Park (Point Chevalier).
- South-Eastern Suburbs: (Manukau City): Bell Park (Pakuranga Heights), Finlayson Avenue Reserve (Clendon), Leabank Park (Leabank), Logan Carr Park (Shamrock Park), Macleans Reserve (Eastern Beach), McLennan Park (Papakura) and Murdoch Park (Papatoetoe West).
An article evidently appeared in the North Shore Times, 30 March 2006, p. 7 on the origin of the names of several North Shore beaches and suburbs including Browns Bay, Campbells Bay and Murrays Bay. The author of this web page would appreciate hearing from anyone who may have read this article, or who has access to it, since it may contain information that could further strengthen the links between these suburbs and Scotland, including clues as to whether Peter Brown may have been Scottish.
- Auckland: The Complete Map, 2002 (Kiwimaps Ltd, Christchurch).
- Auckland and Region Handy Map, 2002 (Hema Maps NZ Ltd, Auckland).
- Auckland City Libraries - Auckland Street Names
- Black, George F. (1996). The Surnames of Scotland. (Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh).
- Dymock, Gil (compiler) (1994). AA Concise Dictionary of New Zealand Place Names (Moa Beckett Publishers Ltd, Auckland).
- Martin, A.E. (1944). Place Names in Queensland, New Zealand and the Pacific.
- Robertson, Raewynn (not dated). A Brief History of Henderson. Waitakere Library and Information Services.
- Room, Adrian (2003). The Penguin Dictionary of British Place Names. (Penguin Books, London).
- Scarlett, James D. (1975). The Tartans of the Scottish Clans. (Collins, Glasgow and London).
- Truttman, Lisa J. (2003). Whau to Avondale 1870-1900, part 2 of Heart of the Whau, The Story of the Centre of Avondale, 1841-2001.
- Websites, place name gazetteers and published Ordnance Survey maps of British and Irish cities, towns, villages and counties.
- Wikipedia articles on selected Auckland suburbs.
© Ian Kendall
Melbourne, Australia, November 2005
Revised July 2009
If you wish to contact Ian about his research, his e-mail address is email@example.com.
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